生物工程导论

所属分类:生物科学  
出版时间:2011-8   出版时间:化学工业出版社   作者:(美)拉奥 主编,李春 改编   页数:319  

内容概要

  本书是在DG Rao《IntroductiOnto
BiochemicaIEngineering》第二版的基础上,经过编者重新组织、删减和修改出版的。主要供生物类专业低年级学生了解生物工程与技术专业的全貌,明晰后续专业课程之间的相互关系,领悟生物工程领域发展的现状和动态及其对社会和经济发展的影响,尤其是当今社会在面临着能源危机、资源危机和环境危机时生物技术所发挥的作用。阅读《生物工程导论(英文改编版)(第2版)》后,可提高学生对专业知识的理解,激发其进一步学习专业知识的兴趣和爱好。对于其他相关专业的学生则可拓展其视野、优化其知识结构、提高其科学素养。
  本书既可作为高等院校生物工程、生物技术、化学工程、制药工程和环境工程等专业的导论教材,化学、生物和食品等专业的拓展教材,也可供相关学科从事教学、科研和生物产业管理者学习和参考。

书籍目录

Chapter 1 Introduction to Bioprocessing Fundamentals 1
 1.1 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS OF BIOPROCESSING TECHNOLOGY 1
 1.2 OVERVIEW OF TRADITIONAL AND MODEN APPLICATIONS OF
BIOTECHNOLOGY 3
 1.3 INTERADISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO BIOPROGROCESSING 3
 1.4 OUTLINES OF LINTEGRATED BIOPROCESS 4
 1.5 UNIT OPERATIONS BIOPROCESS 6
 References 7
 Review Questions 7
Chapter 2 Overview of Microbiology 8
 2.1 HISTORIC BACKGROUND 8
 2.2 MICROSCOPY 10
 2.3 MICROBIAL TAXONOMY 10
 2.4 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 13
 2.5 NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS 13
 2.6 METABOLISM 15
 2.7 PROCARYOTIC CELL 19
 2.8 EUCARYOTIC CELL 22
 2.9 VIRUSES 26
 2.10 FUNGI 26
 2.11 ALGAE 26
 2.12 PROTOZOA 27
 2.13 IMPORTANCE OF MICROBIOLOGY 27
 2.14 CONCLUDING REMARKS 29
 References 29
 Review Questions 29
Chapter 3 Introduction to Biochemistry 31
 3.1 LIPIDS 31
 3.2 PROTEINS 36
 3.3 CARBOHYDRATES 39
 3.4 NUCLEIC ACIDS 43
 3.5 VITAMINS 45
 References 50
 Review Questions 50
Chapter 4 Enzymes 51
 4.1 HISTORY OF ENZYMES 51
 4.2 CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES 51
 4.3 ENZYMES AS BIOLOGICAL CATALYSTS 52
 4.4 ENZYME SPECIFICITY 54
 4.5 ENZYME KINETICS 56
 4.6 IMMOBILIZATION OF ENZYMES 60
 4.7 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ENZYMES 63
 References 67
 Review Questions 68
Chapter 5 Fermentation 69
 5.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF FERMENTATION PROCESS 69
 5.2 RANGE OF FERMENTATION PROCESS 70
 5.3 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF FERMENTER 76
 5.4 MEDIA DESIGN FOR FERMENTATION 78
 5.5 STERILIZATION 84
 5.6 AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION PROCESSES 90
 5.7 SOLID STATE AND SUBMERGED FERMENTATION AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
91
 5.8 VARIOUS TYPES OF BIOREACTORS 92
 References 98
 Review Questions 100
Chapter 6 Kinetics of Microbial Growth and Biochemical Reactors
101
 6.1 PHASES OF CELL GROWTH 102
 6.2 BATCH REACTOR DATA ANALYSIS 102
 6.3 KINETIC MODELS FOR CELL GROWTH 107
 6.4 GROWTH OF FILAMENTOUS ORGANISMS 112
 6.5 SUBSTRATE AND PRODUCT INHIBITION ON CELL GROWTH 113
 6.6 STRUCTURED MODELS 114
 6.7 DESIGN EQUATIONS BASED ON BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS 116
 References 119
 Review Questions 120
 Problems 120
Chapter 7 Ideal Reactors 121
 7.1 DESIGN OF IDEAL REACTORS 121
 7.2 SINGLE REACTOR 124
 7.3 MULTIPLE REACTORS 131
 References 136
 Review Questions 137
 Problems 137
Chapter 8 Multiple Reactions 138
 8.1 PARALLEL REACTIONS 139
 8.2 SERIES REACTIONS 141
 8.3 SERIES PARALLEL REACTIONS 145
 8.4 DESIGN PRINCIPLES 147
 References 149
 Review Questions 149
Chapter 9 Heat Transfer in Bioprocessing 151
 9.1 HEAT TRANSFER BY CONDUCTION 152
 9.2 HEAT TRANSFER BY CONVECTION 159
 9.3 HEAT TRANSFER BY RADIATION 171
 References 176
 Review Questions 177
 Problems 177
Chapter 10 Mass Transfer in Bioprocessing Operations 179
 10.1 MASS TRANSFER BY DIFFUSION 180
 10.2 THEORIES OF DIFFUSIONAL MASS TRANSFER 180
 10.3 MASS TRANSFER BY CONVECTION 183
 10.4 OXYGEN TRANSFER METHODOLOGY IN FERMENTERS 191
 10.5 FACTORS AFFECTING OXYGEN TRANSFER RATE 195
 References 202
 Review Questions 203
 Problems 203
Chapter 11 Heterogeneous Reaction Systems 205
 11.1 MASS TRANSFER CONSIDERATIONS 205
 11.2 INTRA PARTICLE DIFFUSION AND REACTION RATE 208
 11.3 EFFECTIVENESS FACTOR AND THIELE MODULUs 210
 11.4 OBSERVABLE THIELE MODULUS 213
 11.5 BIOREACTOR SELECTION CRITERIA 214
 References 215
 Review Questions 215
Chapter12 Bioreactors and Fermentation 217
 12.1 BIOREACTORS 217
 12.2 MONITORING AND CONTROL OF FERMENTATION PROCESSES 219
 12.3 VARIOUS ACCESSORIES 224
 12.4 CULTIVATION OF ORGANISMS 225
 12.5 MEDIA OPTIMISATION 229
 References 230
 Review Questions 231
Chapter 13 Product Recovery 232
 13.1 REMOVAL OF SUSPENDED SOLIDS 234
 13.2 FILTRATION 234
 13.3 SEDIMENTATION 241
 13.4 CENTRIFUGATION 244
 13.5 CELL DISRUPTION 248
 13.6 EXTRACTION 249
 13.7 MEMBRANE SEPARATION 252
 13.8 CHROMATOGRAPHY 253
 13.9 CRYSTALLISATION 256
 13.10 DRYING 258
 References 265
 Review Questions 265
Chapter 14 Effluent Treatment 267
 14.1 NEED FOR EFFLUENT TREATMENT 267
 14.2 PHYSICAL METHODS 269
 14.3 CHEMICAL METHODS 269
 14.4 BIOLOGICAL METHODS 270
 References 275
 Review Questions 275
Chapter 15 Design and Analysis of Bioreactors 276
 15.1 STABILITY AND ANALYSIS OF BIOREACTORS 277
 15.2 DESIGN AND OPERATION OF BIOREACTORS 279
 15.3 BIOREACTOR FOR PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS 286
 15.4 SCALE UP OF BIOREACTORS 289
 15.5 SOME CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF BIOREACTORS 293
 References 295
 Review Questions 296
Chapter 16 Bioprocess Economics 298
 16.1 PLANTDESIGN AND ECONOMICS 300
 16.2 COST OF PRODUCTION 303
 16.3 BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS 305
 16.4 PROJECT ECONOMICS 307
 16.5 DEPRECIATION 310
 16.6 PROJECT ECONOMICS FOR CITRIC ACID MANUFACTURE 311
 References 319
 Review Questions 319

章节摘录

  Covalent
bonding
method
provides
more
permanent
linkage
between
the
enzyme
and
the
supportmaterial.
Covalent
bonds
can
be
formed
under
mild
conditions,
and
the
active
site
of
enzyme
mustremain
free
from
covalent
attachments.
There
is
still
some
possibility
for
loss
of
activity
of
the
enzymeduring
bond
formation
mainly
because
ofchemical
reaction.  (iv)
Adsorption  One
of
the
simplest
methods
for
enzyme
immobilization
is
by
adsorption.
Enzymescan
be
adsorbed
physically
on
a
surface-active
adsorbent
by
weak
physical
forces
such
as
van
der
Waals'forces
or
dispersion
forces.
Commonly
used
adsorbents
are:
alumina,
clay,
silica,
anion-exchange
resins,these
support
materials
may
have
to
be
chemically
or
physically
pretreated.
Ion
exchange
resinsDEAE-Sephadex
and
carboxymethylcellulose
(CMC)
can
also
be
used
as
support
media.
One
of
thedrawbacks
with
the
adsorption
procedure
is
that
since
adsorption
is
a
non-specific
process,
many
othersubstances
may
also
be
attached
to
the
carrier
in
addition
to
the
immobilized
enzyme.
Anotherdisadvantage
of
this
method
is
that
the
loading
of
enzyme
on
a
unit
amount
of
surface
is
always
very
low,and
the
bonding
strength
is
very
weak,
Still
this
method
is
followed
for
the
following
distinctadvantages:  (i)
the
immobilization
procedure
is
easy
and
simple  (ii)
the
adsorption
process
is
reversible  (iii)
enzymes
are
not
deactivated
by
adsorption.  4.6.2
Properties
oflmmobilized
EnzymesEnzymes
are
usually
immobilized
in
particle
or
pellet
form;
but
enzymes
may
be
attached
to,
orentrapped
within
carriers
in
the
form
ofmembranes,
tubes
or
fibers,
based
on
the
requirements
of
a
givenapplication.
In
view
of
this,
an
immobilized
enzyme
may
have
different
properties
as
compared
to
thesame
enzyme
in
a
free
soluti  n
form.
The
method
ofimmobilization
and
nature
ofinsoluble
carrier
mayhave
influence
on
the
enzyme
properties.
The
specific
activity
may
reduce
in
the
immobilized
enzyme,particularly
if
a
chemical
process
is
involved
in
the
immobilization
method.
The
enzyme
stability
mayvary
on
heating
or
storage.
The
pH
optimum
can
change
by
as
much
as
two
pH
units
for
the
immobilizedenzyme,
mainly
because
ofthe
new
microenvironment
as
compared
to
the
pure
enzyme.
  ……?

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