沉默的故事

所属分类:生物科学  
出版时间:2010-1   出版时间:科学出版社   作者:Shih Chungkun 等著   页数:322  

前言

  Since the mid 1990s, there have been numerous scientifically important fossil findings from Hebei, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia in China. The studies of these fossils of feathered dinosaurs, pterosaurs, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, insects, and plants have significantly increased our understanding of palaeontology, taxonomy, evolution, ecology and other natural sciences, re-written most text books on these subjects and raised the awareness and interest of the general public globally Insects thrived, propagated and served important fimctions in their ecosystems from the Middle Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. After sudden death, most likely due to poisonous gas and volcanic ashes, they were fossilized and preserved. Insect fossils, with excellent preservation of amazing details and broad diversity, have been discovered in large numbers from northeastern China. These insect fossils have silent stories to tell US.  Living in the late Mesozoic and preserved in sedimentary rocks, these fossil insects have been studied at the Capital Normal University (CNU) in Beijing, under the leadership of Prof. Ren Dong and Prof. Shih Chungkun. Based on selected specimens from a vast collection of insect and plant fossils, we have reported our findings in the past 10 years——a period of our "foundation building. At present, we have a 30-member eam of professors and graduate students. We have made some progress, but we also realize that more needs to be done and many areas to be upgraded.  Engaging experts from universities and institutions around the world in joint research projects has greatly improved the efficiency and effectiveness of uncovering silent stories from these insect fossils. We have exchanged visits, shared fossil specimens, and conducted joint research work. Synergy, cooperation and mutual learning greatly enhance the outcome. On average, our CNU Team with collaborators publish 30 to 40 SCI papers annuall3a Based on our reported results and other relevant information in the literature, we put representative insect fossil treasures as the center piece of this book.

内容概要

Insect fossil treasures from the dinosaur era (165 to 130 Ma) in northeastern China are showcased in Ithis book with their silent stories. Not only their taxonomy and morphology, but also their potential implications on natural sciences are presented here. Besides academic science, we highlight popular science by providing information on extant insects and insect-related stories. Elegant and beautiful photos of fossil and extant insects are shown to illustrate our stories while serving as visual arts. In addition to the 18 insect orders (Chapters 5 to 22), the book also covers fossil sites (1 and 4), palaeogeology (2), co-existing animals and plants (3), palaeo-ecosystems (23), pollination and "flower" visits (24) and insect mimicry (25). Judging by the high diversity and the large population of the fossil insects, insects have certainly played critical roles in the evolution and eco-systems over eons, which in turn have made Insecta a highly successful class.Intended to appeal to a broad spectrum of readers (such as palaeontologists, entomologists, evolutionists,palaeoecologists, fossil collectors, naturalists, hobbyists and students), we hope that readers will have fun while gaining new understanding and enjoying the artistic presentations. New fossil findings and further studies will continue to expand knowledge and deepen understanding in these fields. Getting young readers of this book to be interested in these fields, we hope some of them will be inspired to become entomologists or palaeontologists to make their contribution to natural sciences.

作者简介

Dr. SHIH Chungkun is a Visiting Professor since December 2004 in the College of Life Sciences of the CNU on a volunteer basis. His research interests include morphology,taxonomy and evolution of northeastern Chinese fossil insects and their interactions with fossil plants. So far he has co-authored more than 40 papers on insect fossils and coevolution with plants, including a recent paper in Sdence. Dr.Shih received a B. S. (1972) in Chemical Engineering from the Taiwan University, a M. S. (1975) and Ph.D. (1978) in Chemical Engineering from the University of Pennsylvania,a M. S. (1978) in Operations Research from Wharton School, the University of Pennsylvania and a MBA (1982) in Marketing from the Fairleigh Dickinson University. He recently retired after 3 years with Merck and 28 years with Infineum, a joint venture between ExxonMobil Chemical and Shell Chemical. From 1998 to 2009, he was involved in business management for Infineum China and its two joint ventures in China. His business work for a joint venture company in Jinzhou, Liaoning started his passion and studies of insect and plant fossils, which led to his cooperative research with Prof Ren and other collaborators. He has given presentations on fossil treasures from the northeastern China in Singapore, China and USA. He resides in Scotch Plains, NJ with his family.

书籍目录

Chapter
1
IntroductionChapter
2
The
Upper
Mesozoic
Stratigraphic
Characteristics
in
Northeastern
ChinaChapter
3
Well-Balanced
Eco-systemsChapter
4
Insects
On
the
Spot
LightChapter
5
EphemeropteraA
Short
Life
to
LiveChapter
6
Odonata--Terminators
with
WingsChapter
7
Plecoptera
-Indicator
of
Water
QualityChapter
8
Blattodea--Survivors
of
the
FittestChapter
9
Grylloblattodea--Rare
Living
FossilsChapter
10
Dermaptera--Mysrery
at
NightChapter
11
Orthoptera--The
Sound
of
ChirpingChapter
12
Chresmodidae--Skiing
on
WaterChapter
13
Phasmatodea--Swaying
in
the
WindChapter
14
Homoptera--17
Years
UndergroundChapter
15
Heteroptera--Smelly
Defense
or
Piercing
OffenseChapter
16
Raphidioptera--Looking
Out
and
Looking
ForwardChapter
17
Neuroptera--Grace
with
LaceChapter
18
Coleoptera--Sacred,
Precious
and
StrongChapter
19
Mecoptera--Stinger
without
the
StingChapter
20
Diptera--"Vampires"
for
DinosaursChapter
21
Trichoptera
Mobile
Home
BuilderChapter
22
Hymenoptera--Pollinators'
ContributionChapter
23
Reconstruction
of
Palaeoecology
for
Insect
FaunasChapter
24
Pollination
and
"Flower"
VisitsChapter
25
Mimicry

章节摘录

  Metamorphosis
of
Ephemeroptera
is
simple.
The
eggs,
after
being
deposited
into
water,
on
aquatic
plants
or
on
other
solid
objects
in
water,
hatch
into
nymphs.
The
nymphs
live
in
water
and
feed
on
organic
matters
or
debris,
a
few
are
predatory.
Mayfly
nymphs
look
like
stonefly
nymphs;
but
the
former
have
3
thread-like
tails
while
the
latter
have
only
2.
Mayfly
nymphs
use
gills
on
the
abdomen
segments
for
breathing.
The
nymphs
will
go
through
10
to
50
(usually
15
to
25)
molts.
Before
the
last
molt,
the
nymphs
digestive
tract
is
sealed
at
both
ends
to
form
an
air
pocket,
which
causes
the
nymph
to
float
up
to
the
water
surface.
After
months
up
to
4
years,
the
fully
grown
nymph
molts
into
a
winged
sub-adult,
called
a
subimago,
which
has
dull
and
smoky
wings.
The
subimago
molts
into
an
adult
with
clear
wings
within
hours
to
2
days.  Adult
mayflies
emerge
from
molting
in
large
numbers.
The
rise
of
nymphs
popping
out
of
water
and
the
emergence
of
mayflies
en
masse
stir
up
the
water
surface
and
attract
predators.
The
male
mayflies
fly
in
a
swarm
above
the
water
surface
in
a
mating
ritual.
A
male
mayfly
grabs
a
female
flying
into
the
swarm;
they
mate
in
flight
as
they
sink
slowly
toward
the
ground
or
the
water
surface.
Copulation
only
takes
a
few
seconds.
During
the
mating
frenzy,
multiple
males
may
pursue
a
single
female.
Other
males
may
take
a
different
tactics
by
waiting
on
top
of
a
female
that
has
yet
to
molt
into
an
adult.
About
50
species
are
known
to
reproduce
without
mating
(parthenogenesis).
No
males
have
been
found
in
5
of
these
species
(Brittain,
1982;
OToole,
2002).  Because
mayfly
nymphs
are
very
sensitive
to
the
quality
of
the
water
in
which
they
live,
they
can
be
used
as
an
index
species
to
monitor
water
quality.
Contamination
by
industrial
and
farm
pollutants,
low
oxygen
levels,
or
wrong
water
acidity
would
threaten
the
survival
of
these
delicate
species.
Water
pollution
and
acid
rain
have
taken
a
heavy
toll
on
the
mayfly
population
in
many
countries,
which
in
turn
negatively
impacts
the
fish
population.

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  •     爱人非常喜欢的研究各类化石,尤以昆虫化石为其的最爱。跟着爱人长了不少学问,学到了很多东西,喜欢看这些曾静在历史的长河中存在过的精灵们。循着它们现在的样子,找寻它们的后代,遥想着如果没有灭绝它们发展下去会是什么样子呢?带着这样的疑问和好奇,参观了很多的博物馆,试图从这些沉默的石头上来找寻它们曾经发生过的故事。。。
 

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